Psychoanalytic Theory -Handout

February 4, 2019 | Author: nika_aya | Category: Id, Psychoanalysis, Unconscious Mind, Defence Mechanisms, Sigmund Freud
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Jenyca Delos Santos de Ala Gmg2  Theories

Dr. Counseling

Psychoanalytic Theory –emphasis: importance of early childhood development in determining later psychological functioning– *History and Proponent Sigmund Freud (Sigismund) -born May 6, 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia -was brought to Vienna at the age of 4 by his parents -eldest son of Jacob and Amalie Nathanson Freud but has 2 older stepbrothers -gre -grew w up feel feelin ing g favo favore red d by his his moth mother er:: lead lead him him to obse observ rve e that that moth mother er/s /son on relationship was the most perfect of human relationship -when he was 1 and ½ years old, his mother gave birth to a second son; Sigmund was filled with hostilityn to wards his brother and harbored an unconscious wish for his death. When Julius died (6 months), Sigmund felt guilt at having caused his brother’s death (he carried the feelings until middle age) -was drawn to medicine by his curiousity of human nature -in 1885, he received a travelling grant and decided to study in Paris with Jean-Martin Charcot; there he learned the hypnotic technique of treating hysteria (disorder characterized characterized mostly by paralysis) -in med med school school,, he met met Josef Josef Breuer Breuer,, who taugh taughtt him about about catha catharsi rsis s (remo (removi ving ng hysterical symptoms by talking them out) -in his pract practice ice of catha catharsi rsis, s, FreeFree-as assoc sociat iation ion was was devel develope oped d and this this repla replaced ced hypnosis as his principal technqiue -he and Breuer published Studies on Hysteria that features the account of Anna O; in this book, the term “psychical analysis “ was introduced and during the following year, he called his approach “psycho-analysis” -late 1890’s: Freud experienced personal crises and begun analyzing his own dreams -he embarked on the investigation of the unconcious fantasy-life which produced the Interpretation of Dreams (1899), and Jokes and Jokes and their Relations to the Unconsious (1905) -from there he developed psychoanalysis as a therapeutic technique and a theory of  the unconscious which underwent many mutations, both in Freud’s work and in that of  foll follow ower ers, s, from from Jung Jung onwa onward rds, s, who who su succ cces essi sive vely ly esta establ blis ishe hed d inde indepe pend nden entt scho school ols s of  psychoanalytic thought and treatment -Freud died in exile in Hampstead in 1939 *View of the Human Nature Deterministic – People are determined by irrational forces, onconscious motivations, biological and stinctual drives, and certain psychosexual events during the first 5 years of  life. Humans as energy systems – dynamics of personality consist of the ways in which psychic energy is distributed to the id, ego and super ego and because of the limit in the available energy, only one of the systems could gain control at a time. – types of psychic energy: Eros and Thanatos Eros – energy associated with life and sex

– name named d by Freud Freud as Libido Libido – serve serve the purpos purpose e of surviva survivall of the indiv individua iduall – oriented towards growth, development and creativity Thanatos – energy associated with death and aggression –“death instinct” instinct” (a manifested manifested unconscious wish to die or to hurt others) LEVELS OF MENTAL LIFE Unconscious – contains all the drives, urges, or instincts that are beyond our awareness but that nevertheless motivate most of our words, feelings and actions. –unconscious process often enter in our consciousness but only after being disguised or distorted enough to elude censorship Clinical evidence for postulating the unconscious: 1. Dreams, wishes and conflicts 2. Slips of the tongue and forgetting

3. Posthy Posthypno pnotic tic sugges suggesti tions ons 4. Materia Materiall from from free-a free-assoc ssociat iation ion 5. Material from projective techniques

Preconscious – contains all those elements that are not conscious but can become conscious either quite readily or with some difficulty – sources of contents: conscious and unconscious Conscious – mental elements in awareness at any given point at a time – the only level of mental life directly available to us

Id the the orig origin inal al syst system em of personali ality and seat of instincts lacks organization, is blind, demanding, and insistent avoi avoids ds pain pain,, driv driven en by the aim of gaining pleas leasu ure [doe [does s not think. Only wishes or acts]

STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY  Ego Super Ego govern governs, s, contro controls, ls, and moral or judicial branch of  regulates the personality personality represents the ideal mediat mediates es betwee between n the rat rather than han the the real real,, & instincts and the stri strive ves s not not fo for r plea pleasu sure re surrounding but for perfection envi enviro ronm nmen ent: t: creat creates es (traditional values & anxiety, thus the need ideals of society as for defense handed down from mechanisms parents to children) does realistic and psych ycholog ologic ical al rew reward ards logical thinking an d (pride & self-love) & formulates plans of  punishments (guilt act action ion fo for r sati satis sfyin fying g &inferiority) needs

Anxiety – state of tension that motivates us to do something – develops out of a conflict between the id, ego, & superego over control of available energy – function: warn of impending evil – when ego cannot control anxiety by rational & indirect methods, it employs ego defense mechanisms 3 KINDS OF ANXIETY  Reality – fear of danger from the external world, the anxiety level is proportionate to the degree of threat

Neurotic – fear that the instincts will get out of hand & cause one to do something for which one will be punishied Moral – fear of one’s own conscience EGO DEFENSE MECHANISMS – helps individuals cope with anxiety and defend the wounded ego – can have an adjustive value if does not become a style of life to avoid reality – depends on the degree of anxiety and level of development – 2 characteristics: (a) deny or distort reality, (b) operate on unconscious levels Defense Mechanism Repression

Characteristics • •


• • •

Reaction Formation Projection Displacemen t Rationalizati on Sublimation

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• •

Compensatio n Ritual and Undoing

basis of other ego defenses and neurotic disorders threatening or painful thoughts and feelings are excluded from awareness involuntarily simplest of all defense mechanisms generally operates at preconscious levels distorting what the individual thinks, feels/perceives in a traumatic situation developing conscious attitudes and behaviors that are diametrically opposed to disturbing desires attributing to others one’s own unacceptable diseres and impulses directing energy toward another object or person when the original object or person is inaccessible manufacturing good reasons to explain away a bruised ego explaining away failures and losses; justifying specific behaviors and softens the blow connected with disappointments diverting sexual energy into socially acceptable a cceptable channels [usually in creative forms] in face of severe stress or extreme challenge, individuals may attempt to cope with anxiety by clinging to immature and inappropriate behaviors returning to a time in your life when there was security [the demands are not so great] taking in and “swallowing” the values and standards of others [could also be positive] can enhace self-worth and protect one from being a failure being part of a socially acceptable/stronger group masking perceived weaknesses or developing\certain positive traits to make up for limitations using methods to right a wrong or to take away the guilt felt for some perceived misdeed performing elaborate rituals as a way of undoing acts for which they feel guilty

*Development of Personality STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT  – provides the counselor with the conceptual tools for understanding trends in development, key developmental tasks at various stages, normal and abnormal functioning, critical needs,

origins of faulty personality development that leads to adjustment problems and health and unhealthy ego defense mechanisms First year of Life: Oral Stage Characteristics Psychosexual Implications – the mouth and the lips are the sensitive erogenous zones – sole presence of an Id, demanding for instant gratification (by sucking) – Infants obtain life-sustaining nourishment through the oral cavity

Sub-phases: Oral incorporative – focal points points of gratification start with the mouth then gradually move to other areas of the body – deprivation of oral gratification due to scheduled feedings result to problems in adulthood (oral fixation: excessive talking, chewing, eating, smoking, drinking) Oral aggressive – characterized by emergence of teeth – infants respond to others o thers by biting, closing their mouth, smiling and crying – adult characteristics such as sarcasm, hostility, aggression, gossip, & making biting comments to others are related to this developmental period

Ages 1– 3: Anal Stage Characteristics – highlight: toilet training – children continually face parental demands, frustrations in handling objects, exploring the environment, and are expected to master control over their bowels

Psychosexual Implications

– children attempt to control their parents by either either withholding withholding their feces/defecating at inappropriate times: leads to compulsivity Types of Personality: Anal-aggressive – leads to extreme disorderliness, disorderliness, cruelty, inapproproate displays of anger Anal-retentive – leads to extreme orderliness, hoarding, stubborness, stubborness, and stinginess – results from fulfillment of the given task; addressing the need to be productive

Ages 3 – 5: Phallic Stage Characteristics Psychosexual Implications

Psychosocial   Implications – greed may develop as a result of not getting enough food or love during the early years of life – major developmental task: developing trust (children who felt loved have little difficulty accepting themselves) – personality problems that could stem from this age: fear of  reaching out to others, rejection of affection, fear of loving &trusting, low selfesteem, isolation and withdrawal, or inability to form or maintain intense relationship

Psychosocial   Implications – tasks to be mastered: learning independence, personal power, autonomy, and learning how to deal with negative feelings – if parents do so much for their children, children feel incapable of self-functioning


– characterized by increase in motor and perceptual abilities as well as development of interpersonal skills – focus of  attention is on the genitals – children become curious of their bodies, they desire to explore them and discover the difference between the sexes

Male phallic stage – boy craves the attention of the mother, feels antagonistic towards the father, & develops fear that the father will punish him by cutting off the offending organ (castration anxiety) him for having these feelings towards the mother (Oedipus complex) – if the conflict is successfully resolved, the boy develops strong identification with the father Female phallic stage – characterized by emergence of the Electra complex and penis envy (the girl’s love for her mother is transferred to her father when she discovers the absence of a penis) – the girls competes with her mother for the father’s attention & when she realizes that she cannot win, she begins the identification process by adapting some of the the mother’s behavior

Ages 5 – 12: Latency Stage Characteristics Psychosexual Implications – new interests replace infantile impulses – socialization takes place

– the sexual drive is subliminated to some extent to activities in school, hobbies, sports, and friendships with members of the same sex

Ages 12 – Adulthood: Genital Stage Characteristics Psychosexual Implications – during adolescence, many of the old themes during the phallic stage are revived

– adolescents develop interest in the opposite sex, engage in some sexual experimentation, experimentation, and begin to assume adult responsibilities – they learn to be free of parental influence, and develop capacity to be interested with others (“freedom to

Implications – period of conscience development (learning moral standards) – if children’s experimentations (initiatives) are punished for (regarded as evil), it will result to guilt; leads to rigidity, severe conflicts, guilt, remorse, low selfesteem, and self  condemnation

Psychosocial   Implications – midlle childhood years: turning outward toward relationships with others & interest in external world prevails – basic task is to achieve a sense of  industry- to set and attain personal goals. Failure to do so results in a sense of  inadequacy.

Psychosocial   Implications – during this period, adolescents learn to test limits, break  dependent ties, establish new identity, form intimate relationships, and have

love and to work” and to derive satisfaction from loving and working)

a basic sense of  productivity

*Sources of Difficulty or Maladjustment Human development suppression of childish impulses •

*Goals of Counseling Probing the unconscious Working toward radical personality transformations Working through unresolved developmental stages Ability to cope more effectively with the demands of the society in which they live •

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*Counseling Techniques and Procedures Free Association – central technique in psychoanalytic therapy – leads to recollection of past experiences and release of feelings that has been blocked off  – the analyst instructs the client to clear their minds of day-to-day thoughts and preoccupations, and as much as possible, say whatever comes to mind, reagrdless of how painful, silly, trivial, illogical, or irrelevant it may be. – clients lie down on a couch with the analyst behind them so as not to distract them during the free flow of associations – analyst’s task: identify the repressed material; blockings or disruptions indicate anxietyarousing material – silence of the analyst is a sign of “empathy”; not to disturb the patient – most of the material brought up are “childhood experiences” but disguised as common things (random things recalled randomly) – long term treatment is important to be given ample time to talk and to explore the unconscious Interpretation – basic procedure in a analyzing free associations, dreams, resistance and transferences – pointing out, explaining and even teaching the meaning of the client’s behavior that is manifested by dreams, free association, resistances, and transferences – Rules in interpreting: interpreting: 1. interpretation interpretation should only be presented when the phenomenon to be interpreted is close to the client’s conscious awareness (what they are capable of tolerating) 2. interpretation starts from the surface and go only as deep as the clients are able to go while experiencing the situation emotionally 3. order of interpretation: interpretation: resistance, then conflict or emotion Dream Analysis – important procedure in uncovering unconscious material – basic assumption: nearly all dreams are wish fulfillments – 2 levels of content : latent content – the hidden, symbolic, and unconscious motives manifest content – how the dream appears to the client – dreamwork –the dreamwork  –the dream content is transformed to less threateing manifest content (when dreaming) – analyst’s task: uncover disguised meanings by studying the symbols in the manifest – coupled with free association for interpretation Analysis and Interpretation of Resistance

– resistance –anything that works against the progress of therapy & prevents the client from producing unconscious material material –an unconscious dynamic that attempts to defend people against intolerable anxiety which would arise if they were to be aware of their repressed impulses and feelings – analyst’s task: point out and interpret the most obvious resistance (for the client to be able to confront it) – could also take the form of a spurious sense of intimacy or mutuality from early on the relationship – does not mean the client wishes to terminate the counseling – counselor should avoid sounding blamy or accusatory, avoid telling the client that he is resisting, instead allow him to address what makes him anxious Analysis and Interpretation of Transference – transference –pateint’s past “unfinished business” with significant others causes them to distort the present & to react to the analyst as they did to their mother or father or to another early significant person in their life – could be positive or negative (manifestations of hostility) – enables the clients to gain insight into the nature of their fixations and deprivations – repetition-compulsion –the repetitive quality of applying old relationship dynamics to new relationships (ex: man who felt criticism from mother will continually try to reenact the situation to obtain approval but is doomed to failure because the new women are similar to his mother so they would never give him their approval) – countertransference –the counselor’s feelings towards the patient *Contribution Stages of development Concept of the unconscious • •

*Limitations Requires client’s commitment (time, money, personal effort) Long term treatment Limited availability of trained analysts Rigorous training program • •

• •

*Specific Applications Understanding resistances that take form of cancellation of appointments, fleeing from therapy prematurely, and refusing to look at oneself  Understading the role of early relationships that lead to weak spots and faulty personality development development and recognizing that unfinished business can be worked through; so that client can put a new ending to some of the events that have crippled them emotionally Understanding Understanding the value and role of transference transference Understanding how overuse of ego defenses can keep people from functioning effectively effectively & recognizing the ways these ego defenses operate both in the counseling relationship itself & in the client’s lives •

*References: Capuzzi, D. and Gross, D. (2007). Couseling and psychotherapy. Theories and intervention 4th ed. Corey, G. (1981). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. psychotherapy. th Feist, G. and Feist J. (2007). Theories of personality. 6 ed. Freud, S. (1999). The interpretation interpretation of dreams.

Mcloughlin, B. Developing psychodynamic psychodynamic counseling. Sharf, R. (1999). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Cases and concepts. Sommers-Flanagan, J. and Sommers-Flanagan, R. (2004). Counseling and psychotherapy theories in context and practice. Skills, strategies, and techniques.

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